From Flora of Indiana (1940) by Charles C. Deam
In dry clayey soil on the crests of wooded ridges and in dry, black, sandy soil of prairies.
Indiana Coefficient of Conservatism: C = 5
Wetland Indicator Status: FACU
Stems erect, 1-2 dm, often several from the end of a moniliform rhizome, minutely pubescent on the angles with eglandular curved-ascending hairs; main cauline lvs sessile, lance-ovate or somewhat deltoid, 10-16 mm, 2-3 times as long as wide, entire, glabrous, or somewhat scabrous above, especially near the tip and margin, the lateral veins 1 or commonly 2 on each side of the midrib, not anastomosing; fls axillary, 7-9 mm, the short pedicels with curved-ascending hairs; cal not glandular, lower lip of the cor hirtellous in 2 lines. Dry upland woods and prairies; Mass. to Mich. and N.D., s. to Va., Tenn., Ark., and Okla., most abundant in the Middle West. May-July. (S. ambigua, misapplied)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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