From Flora of Indiana (1940) by Charles C. Deam
Our records indicate that this species is restricted to the alluvial flood plains, banks, and slopes of the terraces of streams. Found in sandy soil in the locations indicated, along roadsides, and in clover fields. It is the most abundant in the White Water River Valley. I have seen it by the acre along this river in Franklin and Union Counties. It has become so abundant in some places that farmers have reported it as an obnoxious weed. It can not stand competition but when once established it will persist if bare soil exists. We have had it in our meadow along the Wabash River for 25 years. Wood's Classbook of all editions except the first gives Miami Mist for its common name. Fisher says it was so called in western Ohio.
Indiana Coefficient of Conservatism: C = 3
Wetland Indicator Status: N/A
Lax annual 2-4 dm, strigose throughout; lower lvs petioled, often pinnately compound, the upper sessile and clasping, coarsely pinnately lobed, the lobes 3-11, triangular or oblong, often falcate, sharply acute; cymes secund, 6-20-fld; cor commonly blue, broadly campanulate or subrotate, 5-13 mm wide, its lobes conspicuously fringed, glabrous; filaments villous below the middle; cor with very small appendages in the tube; ovules 4; seeds 2-4, 1.5-3 mm; 2n=18. Rich moist woods; e. Pa. to S.C. and Ga., w. to se. Ont., n. Ind., e.c. Ill., e. Mo., and Ala. Apr.-June.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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