Plants cespitose with fewer than 25 culms per clump; rhizomes appearing elongate only in old clumps. Culms (35-)40-110 cm; vegetative culms few, inconspicuous, with 6-8 leaves, not strikingly 3-ranked. Leaves: sheaths adaxially white-hyaline, summits concave or truncate, prolonged beyond collar to 2.5 mm, papillose at least near apex; distal ligules 1-5 mm; blades 3-4 per fertile culm, 2.5-25 cm × 2-5 mm, usually adaxially papillose. Inflorescences open, pale brown, 0.24-0.62 cm × 8-15 mm; proximal internode 5-17 mm; 2d internode 3-10 mm; proximal bracts scalelike, with bristle tips shorter than inflorescences. Spikes 3-6(-8), distant, distinct, ovoid to clavate, 7-21 × 5.5-12 mm, base rounded to long tapered, apex rounded. Pistillate scales reddish brown with green midstripe, lance-ovate to ovate, 3.1-5.4 mm, 1.9-3.2 times as long as wide, (1-)1.4-2.3 mm shorter than perigynia, narrower than perignyia, apex obtuse to acute. Anthers (2.4-)2.8-4.2 mm. Staminate scales obtuse. Perigynia 15-80 in larger spikes, ascending or ascending-spreading, green to pale whitish green with reddish brown margin, conspicuously 8-12-veined abaxially, 4-8-veined adaxially, broadly elliptic to nearly orbiculate, (4.5-)5.1-6.7(-7.1) × (2.4-)2.8-4.2 mm, 0.5-0.7 mm thick, membranaceous with brown achene visible through hyaline adaxial face, margin flat, including wing 0.8-1.2 mm wide, often erose, scalloped, or with an irregular tooth, smooth; beak pale brown at tip, flat, ciliate-serrulate, abaxial suture inconspicuous, distance from beak tip to achene 2.4-3.7 mm. Achenes elliptic to oblong, 1.6-2.2 × 1.1-1.6 mm, 0.5 mm thick. 2n = 76, 78. Fruiting spring. Dry to mesic prairies, open woodlands, rock or sand barrens; 50-400 m; Man., Ont.; Conn., Maine, Mass., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Mich, Minn., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Wis.
In small tufts from a short, stout rhizome, aphyllopodic, 3-12 dm; main lvs 2-4 mm wide, shorter than the stem; sheaths ventrally hyaline; spikes 3-7, gynaecandrous, the pistillate part globose to ovoid, 8-12 mm, often clavate at base and to 18 mm including the staminate part, sessile, separate or somewhat aggregated into an oblong to linear cluster 3-7 cm; anthers 3-4 mm; pistillate scales lance-ovate, acute to acuminate, shorter (by 1-2 mm) and much narrower than the perigynia, pale brown with green midnerve and narrow hyaline margins; perigynia stramineous, broadly ovate, 4.2-7 (avg 5.7) mm, 1.3-2 times as long as wide, very flat, thin and almost translucent, broadly winged, sharply several-nerved on both sides, abruptly contracted to the flat, serrulate beak; achene lenticular, 1.6-2 נ1.5 mm; 2n=76. Open woods, fields, and meadows in moist or dry soil; Me. to Sask., s. to Del., O., Mo., Okla., and N.M.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
©The New York Botanical Garden. All rights reserved. Used by permission.
From Flora of Indiana (1940) by Charles C. Deam
Frequent to common along railroad sidings and grassy roadsides in northern Indiana; rare in the southern counties and not known from the unglaciated area. Occasional in low, moist sandy habitats; very rare in open woods.
Citation: The vPlants Project. vPlants: A Virtual Herbarium of the Chicago Region. http://www.vplants.org
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