From Flora of Indiana (1940) by Charles C. Deam
Infrequent to rare and generally found in rather open woods, in moist and usually sandy soil along streams; sometimes in moist open woods and fallow fields, and along roadsides.
Indiana Coefficient of Conservatism: C = 4
Wetland Indicator Status: FACU
Erect, 1-1.5 m, branched above; lvs thin, green, ovate or lance-ovate, to 15 cm, reduced upwards, coarsely serrate, rounded or subcordate at base, finely hairy beneath; petioles of the larger lvs to 6 cm, the upper reduced; spikes subcylindric, to 2 dm, 1-1.5 cm thick, occasionally interrupted at base; bracts broadly ovate, acuminate, not large; cal at anthesis glabrous, 6 mm, the lance-ovate lobes 1-1.5 mm, with convex margins, obtuse or subacute; cor greenish- yellow; 2n=18. Open woods; Vt. to s. Ont., Minn., and se. S.D., s. to Ga. and Okla. Aug., Sept.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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