From Flora of Indiana (1940) by Charles C. Deam
This species has been introduced in a few Ohio River towns and is apparently hardy. I know of a planted tree that is hardy on the "knobs" about 3 miles northwest of Henryville, Clark County. In 1925 I found a tree in a woods just east of no. 10 school about 5 miles southeast of Laconia, Harrison County. It was 10 inches in diameter with a clear bole of about 30 feet. This tree was surrounded by several rootshoots, one of the largest of which I cut off. It measured slightly more than 2 inches in diameter near the base and was 5 years old. In 1935 I again visited this place and found that the large tree had been cut but that there were many seedlings along the roadside about 125 feet distant where the mineral soil was exposed. In 1935 some specimens were sent to me from a "black jack" ridge about 3 miles south of Livonia, Washington County. The letter accompanying the specimens said that there were a few small trees about 15 feet high. Ralph M. Kriebel writes that there are a few trees planted in Bedford, Lawrence County, and that in 1935 he found it as an escape in four abandoned stone quarries in the vicinity of Bedford. It was found growing in the "grout" (small chips of limestone) of these quarries. This habitat observation is very significant and worthy of further investigation.
Indiana Coefficient of Conservatism: C = null, non-native
Wetland Indicator Status: UPL
Tree to 15 m; lvs long-petioled, broadly cordate-ovate, entire or 3-5-angled, 1.5-2.5(-8) dm, hairy or even tomentose beneath with stellate or branched hairs; fls 5-7 cm; fr pointed, 3-4 cm; 2n=40. Native of China, escaped from cult. in s. U.S. and n. to se. Conn., Pa., O., Ind., and Mo. Apr., May.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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