Cal regular, deeply 5-parted; cor rotate, nearly regular, the 3 lower lobes slightly longer than the 2 upper; stamens 5, all with anthers, ±dimorphic, the 2 lower filaments commonly differing from the 3 upper in length and pubescence, the anthers also often dimorphic; stigma capitate; fr septicidal, the 2 valves ±cleft above; seeds longitudinally ridged; ours mostly biennials (no. 2 often perennial), producing a rosette the first year and a tall flowering stem the next; lvs alternate, entire or toothed; fls yellow, white, or blue, in 1-many elongate racemes or panicles or congested spike-like infls. 300, Eurasia.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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