From Flora of Indiana (1940) by Charles C. Deam
This species prefers a dry and rather sandy soil. It is infrequent in the lake area and progressively less frequent to rare southward. It is most frequent in pastures and open woodland.
Indiana Coefficient of Conservatism: C = null, non-native
Wetland Indicator Status: UPL
Spreading-hairy perennial, the stems with creeping base and assurgent tips and branches, 0.5-2.5 dm; lvs all opposite, elliptic or elliptic-obovate, narrowed to a ±petiolar base, 1.5-5 נ0.6-3 cm, 1.5-3 times as long as wide, rather finely serrate, the larger ones with mostly 12-20 teeth per side; racemes axillary, pedunculate, spiciform, the pedicels 1-2 mm, surpassed by the small, alternate bracts; cor light blue, sometimes with darker lines, 4-8 mm wide; fr 4 mm, broadly triangular-subcordate, shallowly retuse; style 2.5-4.5 mm; seeds 6-12 per locule, 1 mm; 2n=18, 32-36. Dry fields and upland woods; native of Europe, now well established throughout our range. Apr.-July.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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