From Flora of Indiana (1940) by Charles C. Deam
Found in all parts of the state where it has escaped from cultivation and persisted. It rarely produces seeds and there are no records of its doing so in Indiana. It should be closely observed and if found with mature seed the fact should be recorded.
Indiana Coefficient of Conservatism: C = null, non-native
Wetland Indicator Status: N/A
Colonial by rhizomes, loosely erect, 1.5-3(-4) dm; cauline lvs very numerous, crowded, linear, 1-3 cm נ1-3 mm, 1-nerved, those subtending the umbel similar, those of the umbel broadly cordate; rays of the umbel usually 10 or more; fr 3 mm, seldom produced, slightly granular-roughened; seeds plump, smooth, 1.5-2 mm; 2n=20, 40. Native of Eurasia, commonly established in our range in roadsides, waste ground, and cemeteries; Me. to Wash., s. to Va. and Ark. Apr.-July. (Tithymalus c.; Galarhoeus c.)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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