Japanese brome, more...
[Bromus arvensis var. japonicus (Thunb. ex Murray) Fiori, more]
From Flora of Indiana (1940) by Charles C. Deam
This species is now found throughout the state in habitats similar to those of Bromus commutatus.
FNA 2007, Field Guide to Forest & Mtn. Plants of N AZ 2009, Ann. Checklist GCNP 1987
Common Name: Japanese brome Duration: Annual Nativity: Non-Native Lifeform: Graminoid General: Introduced annual with erect stems 20-70 cm, can be solitary or loosely grouped, with inflorescence an open panicle with spreading, often drooping branches. Vegetative: Culms erect or ascending, 20-70 cm long, blades 10-20 cm long, 2-4 mm wide, pilose, flat; ligules 1-2 mm, pilose, toothed; sheaths densely pilose, upper sheaths may be pubescent or glabrous. Inflorescence: Panicle loose, nodding, pyramid-shaped, 10-22 cm long, 4-13 cm wide; branches flexuous, often longer than spikelets, often with 2 or more spikelets; spikelets 2-4 cm, lanceolate, florets 6-12; glumes 4-8 mm long, unequal, lower glume slightly smaller, lanceolate, 5-veined, upper glume 7-veined; lemmas 7-9 mm long; awns 8-13 mm long, curved or bent at maturity; anthers 1-1.5 mm long. Ecology: Found in fields, along roads, and in disturbed areas at 2800-3100 ft. Flowers April-September. Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the United States Notes: Native to Europe and Asia. Is commonly part of mixed prairie communities; competes vegetation that provides better forage, thus decreases plant biodiversity. Similar to Bromus arvensis, which has slightly taller stems at 20-110 cm tall, purple tinged spikelets and anthers 2-5 mm long. Ethnobotany: Unknown Etymology: Bromus is from Greek bromo, for stinking, while japonicus means of or belonging to Japan. Synonyms: None Editor: LKearsley, 2012
Much like no. 16 [Bromus commutatus Schrad.], and apparently passing into it, but the panicle avg a little larger, and with slender, flexuous, spreading to drooping branches; spikelets (13-) 15-30 mm; lemmas (6-)7.5-9 mm, 1.2-2.2 mm wide in side view; awns 7-12 mm, flexuous or recurved-divergent, the longest ones of a spikelet more than twice as long as that of the lowest lemma; palea 1-2.5 mm shorter than the lemma; 2n=14. Native of the Old World, intr. as a weed in waste places from N.H. and Vt. to Ga., w. to the Pacific.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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