From Flora of Indiana (1940) by Charles C. Deam
Infrequent throughout our area. Generally found in low woods, moist ravines, rarely in open places and on banks of streams. When it grows in very dense shade, the plant usually becomes weak and decumbent and is more branched than when it grows in open places or in the sun.
Stems to 1 m, usually simple, glabrous or with some short stout hairs on the angles; lvs thin, oblanceolate to oblong, mostly 6-15 cm, acuminate, crenate- serrate, usually broadly obtuse to subcordate at base, glabrous or rarely with a few hairs; petioles of the main lvs 8-25 mm; bracts usually with a few low teeth; cal-tube 3-4.5 mm, almost always glabrous, the lobes lanceolate, glabrous, 2.5-3.5 mm; 2n=32. Moist soil, especially in shaded places; N.Y. to Mich. and Minn., s. to S.C. and Tex. June-Aug. Intermediates to no. 5 [Stachys hispida Pursh] are not uncommon northward.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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