Culms 4-37 cm; cataphylls with concave cells. Leaves: basal sheaths golden brown to dark brown; blades green, eceeding culms, 0.8-4.8 mm wide, herbaceous, margins green, scabrous. Lateral spikes 1-5, basal, on spreading to nodding peduncles. Terminal spikes with staminate portion 3-13 flowered, (4.2-)5.8 14.5 × 0.4 0.8 mm; pistillate portion 1 4-flowered. Pistillate scales green, margins connate, hyaline, white, occasionally tinged reddish brown; proximal scales with margins 1.4-3 mm, apex long-acuminate; distal scales with margins 0.4-0.8 mm wide, apex acuminate, awnless. Staminate scales ovate, 1.1-1.8(-2.1) × 1.2-1.5 mm, 0.12-0.25(-0.75) length of staminate portion of terminal spike, margins hyaline, white, often with reddish brown subapical band, apex truncate or broadly obtuse. Anthers 0.6-1.6 mm. Perigynia green to bronze, globose to ellipsoid, 4.4-7.2 × 1.9-2.4 mm, tightly enveloping achenes, apex abruptly tapering; beak 1.6-3.8 mm, scabrous. Stigmas filiform, flexuous, strongly papillose. Achenes dark brown, globose to ellipsoid, 2-2.6 × 1.7-2.4 mm. 2n = 66, 70. Fruiting spring-summer (early May-mid Jul). Mesic, rich ravines, slopes, and flood plains in hardwood forests, on lime-rich substrates; 100-400 m; Ont.; Ala., Ark., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Md., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va., Wis.
From Flora of Indiana (1940) by Charles C. Deam
Very common throughout Indiana except in the northwestern counties from which we have no records. It is a plant of rich woods, occurring in dry neutral soil, especially on the slopes of deep ravines. It is most frequently associated with either Carex hitchcockiana or C. oligocarpa or both.
Indiana Coefficient of Conservatism: C = 4
Wetland Indicator Status: n/a
Citation: The vPlants Project. vPlants: A Virtual Herbarium of the Chicago Region. http://www.vplants.org
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