Perennial 1-2.5 m with long, fleshy-fibrous roots, glabrous or nearly so; stem striate or grooved, simple to the infl, leafy; middle and lower lvs triangular-hastate, 5-20 cm, nearly or quite as wide, sharply toothed, conspicuously petioled; upper lvs progressively less hastate and with shorter, more winged petioles; heads in a flat-topped infl, commonly 20-40-fld, the disk 7-11 mm wide; invol 1 cm, its principal bracts 10-15, commonly with some reduced but conspicuous, loose, subulate outer ones; receptacle flat, deeply pitted; 2n=40. Riverbanks and moist low ground; R.I. and Conn., w. to se. Minn., s. to Md., Ky., Tenn., Ill., and in the mts. to Ga. July-Oct. (Synosma s.)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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