From Flora of Indiana (1940) by Charles C. Deam
Frequent to common in moist, rich woods throughout the state. Frequent almost everywhere in woods except on very dry slopes, in very sandy soil, and in very wet woodland. Experience has shown that this species and Sanicula should not be introduced into wild flower gardens because both soon become weeds.
Indiana Coefficient of Conservatism: C = 3
Wetland Indicator Status:
Single-stemmed, fibrous-rooted perennial 3-10 dm; lower lvs long-petioled, the upper on short petioles dilated as far as the lfls; lfls lanceolate to rhombic or ovate, 4-15 cm, sharply and irregularly (often doubly) serrate or incised to sometimes lobed; rays 2-7, ascending, 1-5 cm; pedicels several, to 3 cm; fr dark, 5-8 mm; 2n=20. Woods, Que. and N.B. to Man., s. to Ga., Ala., and Tex.; Japan. June, July. (Deringa c.)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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