From Flora of Indiana (1940) by Charles C. Deam
Infrequent in dry, sandy soil or in moist, prairie habitats in the lake area, mostly along roadsides and railroads, becoming rarer southward. In the southern part of the state it is found on washed slopes, sandy, wooded ridges, along roadsides in clay or on sand hills, and in the hard, clay flats. In 1935 I noted this species to be abundant in the old Beaver Lake bottom in Newton County.
Indiana Coefficient of Conservatism: C = 5
Wetland Indicator Status: FACU
Stems slender, erect from a cluster of fibrous roots, 2-5 dm, simple to the infl, pubescent in lines; lvs very numerous in whorls of 3-6, narrowly linear, 2-5 cm נ1-2 mm, revolute; umbels several from the upper nodes; peduncles 1-3 cm; fls white or greenish; cor-lobes 4-5 mm; hoods somewhat divergent, 1.5-2 mm, about equaling the gynostegium, their margins entire; horns subulate, much surpassing the hoods, inflexed over the gynostegium; fr slender, erect on erect pedicels, 7-10 cm; 2n=22. Fields, roadsides, upland woods, and prairies; Mass. to Fla., w. to Sask., Kans., and Ariz. June-Aug.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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