From Flora of Indiana (1940) by Charles C. Deam
Locally abundant throughout the state in lakes, ponds, swamps, ditches, and sluggish streams. These plants are preyed upon by insects.
Thallus broadly oval to obovate, anthocyanic beneath, (3-)5-8(-10) mm, ±evidently 5-15-nerved, forming turions especially in the fall; roots mostly 5-12; spathe open only at the top; seeds 1 or 2, smooth or minutely reticulate; 2n=30, 40, 50. Quiet water; nearly cosmopolitan, and throughout our range.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.
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